The COVID-19 coronavirus, which was first detected in the Chinese city of Wuhan, is spreading very quickly, reaching every continent. As a preventive measure, it is better to stay at home, as there is still no medicine developed to effectively combat the symptoms. What is the treatment of the COVID-19 coronavirus like at the moment? How can the presence of the coronavirus be detected?
What are the symptoms of the COVID-19 coronavirus?
The risk of contracting the COVID-19 coronavirus is very high as the coronavirus spreads via airborne droplets. However, experts admit that infection can also occur via the oral-fecal route. The most common symptoms are dry cough, high temperature (over 38 degrees Celsius), and shortness of breath. They may be accompanied by muscle aches, sore throat, general weakness, diarrhea and vomiting noted in some diagnosed patients.
See also: Coronaviruses - Symptoms, Treatment, and Prevention
The disease may be asymptomatic, mild or severe. People over 60 are at risk because of the frequent occurrence of comorbidities (coronary heart disease or diabetes), as well as chronically ill people. Children who may be carriers of the COVID-19 coronavirus are the least likely to get sick.
Find out more: Seniors and Coronavirus. Three questions for the geriatrician
How can COVID-19 coronavirus be identified? Pandemic: How to Prevent an Outbreak says it has developed a viable cure for COVID-19 that is undergoing research by the US military.
Glanville, the co-founder and CEO of a biotechnology company called Distributed Bio, and a group of employees began work on the procedure on January 25, 2020. According to the company's website:
“Our strategy was to design a panel of anti-SARS antibodies to recognize and block the new coronavirus. The result of this work is a panel of therapeutic antibodies with very high affinity for the neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19).
The study used both Distributed Bio SuperHuman 2.0 human antibody discovery technology and Tumbler computer antibody optimization technology to discover thousands of antibodies to a new virus within 9 weeks. '
How does antibody therapy work?
In a March 31, 2020 interview, Glanville explained how his company developed a treatment:
"... My team successfully tested five antibodies that as early as 2002 showed the ability to bind and neutralize, block and stop the SARS virus ... The new virus is a cousin of the old SARS.
So we made hundreds of millions of versions of these antibodies, mutated them a little bit, and in this pool of mutant versions we found versions that… bind to the same site as the new virus, Covid-19.
[Antibody] binds to a site that the virus uses to gain access to cells. It blocks them. At this point, we know that it binds the same site very tightly with a lot of affinity. The next step is to send the antibodies to a military laboratory where scientists will apply them directly to the virus and see if it blocks its ability to infect cells. '
According to Fox News, antibody therapy essentially bypasses the need for a vaccine. "Instead of giving the vaccine and waiting for it to trigger an immune response, we'll just give those antibodies… so in about 20 minutes the patient will be able to neutralize the virus," said Glanville.
According to Glanville, the finished drug will be tested for effectiveness by the American Institute for Infectious Disease Research (USAMRIID) while Charles River Laboratories will conduct safety testing.
Human trials may begin late summer, according to the New York Post. At best, the drug could be made available for use in September, Glanville said, meaning patients can get the drug outside of a clinical trial. When asked about Glanville's claims, Dr. Anthony Fauci replied that the use of monoclonal antibodies was an "old concept" and that the project was "the right one" to do.
In an interview with Ella Sogomonian of KRON ON, Glanville also discusses some other drugs that show promise for treating COVID-19. One of them is chloroquine, a malaria drug that is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for off-label use in the treatment of COVID-19. Laboratory tests on cell culture have shown that it is effective against SARS-CoV-2.
Another drug currently in use is hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil). Although it uses the same pathway as chloroquine, it has a better safety profile. One recently published study has found encouraging results with the use of hydroxychloroquine. Infection control specialist Dr. Didier Raoult from France enrolled 24 patients with confirmed COVID-19 for the study.
Patients received 600 mg of hydroxychloroquine each day; their viral load was monitored. Depending on the clinical presentation, doctors added azithromycin to the treatment protocol. Patients from another hospital who refused treatment were used as a control group.
Although the study was small, the findings suggest that "treatment with hydroxychloroquine is significantly associated with the reduction / disappearance of viral load in COVID-19 patients and its effects are enhanced by azithromycin."
Another doctor shared his positive results using a similar protocol. Dr. Vladimir Zelenko treats a group of 35,000 patients in Kiryas Joel, New York. After testing that 20,000 people in the community could be infected, he developed a treatment protocol.
For five days, he treated each patient with dyspnoea or high-risk group with mild symptoms with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and zinc sulfate. There were no deaths, hospitalizations, or incubations over the five-day period. According to him, "about 10% of patients" had "transient nausea and diarrhea."
Malaria medications are not without risks
Just to let you know that research is still ongoing and I do not endorse it in any way, because like any drug, it can have unintended consequences called side effects, and many of them can be very serious.
While chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine show promising activity against COVID-19, they are not without risk. Both chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have the undesirable effect of wave prolongation of the QT electrocardiogram. This means that the electrical activity of the heart is altered, which can lead to a heart attack, fainting and sudden death.
Two days after China issued guidelines for the use of chloroquine, it sent out a warning to closely monitor side effects and limit use to people without heart, liver or kidney disease and those who are not taking steroids or antibiotics such as azithromycin.
I believe that there are more accessible, effective, cheaper and simple strategies that I discussed earlier that need to be considered before taking this radical approach.
Zinc can play an important role
Interestingly, chloroquine appears to improve zinc absorption, which may be part of the mechanism that makes it such a useful drug against COVID-19. Evidence shows that zinc gluconate and zinc acetate are effective in reducing the severity and duration of viral infections. Zinc is crucial for the effectiveness of the immune system, enzyme function, protein synthesis and cell division.
Research shows that taking a zinc supplement shortens the duration of a cold by 33% and reduces the severity of symptoms. Zinc has also been shown to inhibit the coronavirus in vitro and block coronavirus replication in cell culture. As Seheult explained on MedCram:
"When the coronavirus infects a cell, it transmits mRNA to the cell, and from which ribosome translation will take place. The first thing ribosomes will do is translate, that is, synthesize a protein on an RNA template. This protein is viral RNA polymerase or replicase.
It is this enzyme that is ... inhibited by high intracellular zinc concentrations. As it turns out, chloroquine is a zinc ionophore, just like hydroxychloroquine. Zinc ionophore is simply a protein that allows zinc to enter cells.
We don't know if it really works that way in this case, but it seems to be a plausible mechanism of action in that hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine both increase intracellular zinc concentration and zinc inhibits viral replicase. "
The immune system is your best defense
As this story unfolds, I am committed to providing real prevention and treatment options that you can use at home. A recent article by Mark McCarty and James DiNicolantonio suggests that there are nutraceuticals that can help reduce the symptoms and severity of flu and infection caused by the coronavirus. According to the authors, these viruses can:
“… Induce a cytokine storm in the lungs, and it is this inflammatory storm that leads to acute respiratory failure, organ failure and death. Some nutraceuticals can help reduce the inflammation in the lungs caused by RNA viruses, and others can also help increase the type 1 interferon response to these viruses, which is the body's primary way of making antiviral antibodies to fight viral infections. '
Based on the conclusions of several randomized clinical trials, DiNicolantonio believes that the antiviral effects of some nutraceuticals are obvious, and hopes these benefits will encourage researchers to do more research to test this strategy. Additional suggestions can be found in the article "Quercetin and Vitamin D - Allies in the Fight Against Coronavirus?"
Remember to take care of your gut flora, reduce your sugar and carbohydrate intake, improve sleep quality, and wash your hands frequently and properly to stay healthy.
Stay away from others, especially when you are sick, to avoid spreading the virus. Seek appropriate medical help. Difficulty breathing is a clear indicator of the need for medical attention. This is especially important if you are pregnant, have a weakened immune system, or have chronic diseases, as they put you at increased risk of severe COVID-19 infection. Further batches of the drug will be available for patients in need in hospitals and pharmacies starting April 2 2020.
Understanding the seriousness of the current epidemiological situation in our country, Adamed decided to donate the drug to hospitals and infectious wards across Poland, designated by the Minister of Health for the treatment of patients with Covid-19. Adamed will also deliver the product free of charge, i.e. transport it to hospitals.
MEDICINE FOR PATIENTS WITH RECOGNIZED COVID-19
Pursuant to the decision of the Ministry of Health, the drug will be dispensed in homonymous hospitals and dedicated infectious diseases hospitals throughout Poland, designated by the Ministry of Health for the treatment of hospitalized patients, patients in places of isolation and for patients in home isolation.
PATIENTS WHO USE THE DRUG FOR OTHER REGISTERED INDICATIONS
(e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus)
Pursuant to the Announcement of the Minister of Health of April 1, 2020 on the limitation in dispensing medicinal products per patient, the product will be regulated and it will be possible to issue and fulfill a prescription for a maximum of two drug packages per patient (PESEL number) within 30 days.
Patients will be able to buy a drug at a pharmacy on the basis of a prescription issued by a doctor with a reimbursement fee of 30% and in the indications covered by the refund:
malaria, amoebiasis and liver abscess, various forms of lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune diseases other than those specified in the SPC, late cutaneous porphyria.
After receiving the prescription, the patient should contact the selected pharmacy by phone or in person - preferably the one closest to his / her place of stay, and order the drug (with the e-prescription, provide the PESEL number and prescription PIN, and with the paper prescription PESEL number and the last 6 digits from the prescription number). The pharmacist will order the drug directly from the manufacturer's warehouse, which will deliver the drug to the pharmacy, fulfilling a specific prescription. The patient will be able to pick up the drug at the pharmacy after getting information over the phone from the pharmacist that the drug has been delivered. The patient's payment for one package of the drug in the indications covered by the refund remains unchanged and amounts to PLN 5.82.
Such a drug distribution system results from the Announcement of the Minister of Health of April 1, 2020 and was developed to ensure the availability of the drug to patients who actually need it, eliminate unjustified use of the drug without medical indications and stockpile the drug.
At the same time, we want to emphasize that this is a temporary solution.
Adamed constantly makes every effort to meet the needs and challenges resulting from the current epidemiological situation in Poland. The drug is produced on an ongoing basis and its next batches will be available on the market by the end of April 2020. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are two drugs currently used and approved for the treatment of malaria. Some countries use them to treat Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19). However, their effectiveness in treating SARS-CoV-2 has yet to be demonstrated in studies.
Both chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are used worldwide to treat malaria and some autoimmune diseases, as reported by the European Medicines Agency. There is no scientific evidence that these two drugs can be effective in treating COVID-19. However, the US, led by tycoon Donald Trump, continues to use them to treat hospitalized patients. US President Donald Trump has repeatedly touted his potential against the virus, and the government has amassed huge stocks of these drugs.
The CNN reported considering the White House Coronavirus Response Coordinator Dr. Deborah Birx, i.e. that tests in laboratories have shown some efficacy against the acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus responsible for the current pandemic, but also that this does not mean it will work in humans The study began with the inclusion of COVID-19 patients, divided into two groups: the first, made up of people who had been exposed to a known case in the past few days, and the second, made up of people who had just started showing symptoms.
Boulware wants to see if the first group of people can reduce their risk of infection by taking hydroxychloroquine. While the second group will be tested to see if hydroxychloroquine can reduce the need for hospitalization by treating this group of patients early in the disease.
Since Dr. Boulware said the vast majority of those affected by COVID-19 are not hospitalized, so if they could break that chain of infection by identifying someone and then prophylactically everyone around them who has been in contact with them to prevent infection, you can remove things a lot. faster.
The COVID-19 coronavirus is similar to other coronaviruses (SARS or MERS). Based on this, it was possible to quickly prepare two tests to confirm the presence of the COVID-19 coronavirus. These include genetic testing and immunological testing.
Also read: Could I have contracted the coronavirus?
The first of them show a higher sensitivity (at the level of 98%), which may also cause false results, therefore some of the tests should be repeated. In addition, the outcome may be affected by the coexistence of comorbidities. Coronavirus has been the number one topic worldwide since the beginning of 2020. The mysterious virus began to take its toll in the Chinese city of Wuhan, from where it gradually spread its reach almost all over the world. The number of infections is also constantly growing in Poland. Knowing who is most at risk of getting sick and how you can protect yourself against the disease. How to recognize symptoms and when to see a doctor Coronavirus is a mysterious disease that keeps people awake all over the world. The first cases of the disease appeared in Wuhan, China at the end of 2019. Back then, no one realized the scale of the threat. The virus owes its name to its molecular structure. Under the microscope, it looks like it is corona-shaped. The virus attacks the upper respiratory tract, causing mainly shortness of breath, coughing and high fever. It's easy to mistake it for the common flu. You can get infected by droplets through contact with the secretion of a sick person. It penetrates the mucous membranes and develops rapidly inside the orgasm. In addition, its molecules are coated with glycoproteins, which means that it can also be transmitted through the fecal-oral route.
Scientists also say that you can become infected through contact with infected objects, but it is not the main route of infection. In this case, very little time has to pass from touching the surface covered by the virus, such as our mouth. Adequate hand hygiene and avoiding touching the face are enough to minimize the risk of contamination in this way.
See also: Information about the coronavirus in Poland
1.1. The causes of the appearance of the coronavirus
In fact, the direct cause of the so-called patient "zero" is unknown. It is said that the virus may have been found in the body of bats, which in China are one of the ingredients of exotic Asian dishes. In this way, the virus was able to enter the human body and cause an epidemic. 2019-nCoV coronavirus is a virus belonging to the coronavirus family (coronaviridae). Coronaviruses occur in animals and cause various diseases (respiratory system, digestive system, liver, nervous system), and many infections are also asymptomatic. These viruses mutate frequently and are highly capable of infecting new species. All coronaviruses known so far that cause human infections are viruses that cause respiratory symptoms, very rarely from other systems and organs. It is possible that, in addition to respiratory tract infections, they can cause diarrhea in children up to 12 months of age. By 2019, 6 viruses that infect humans were known. Four of them (229E, OC43, NL63, HKU1) are the cause of mild colds. The other two (SARS and MERS viruses) can lead to life-threatening acute respiratory failure. The 2019-nCoV coronavirus is the virus responsible for the current epidemic of respiratory infections that started in Wuhan, China and was first identified there in December 2019.
Cases in US: Cases in the U.S.
Other names of Hydroxychloroquine: Aloquin, Hydroxychloroquine, Arechin, Avloclor, Avloquin, Chlorochin, Chloroquin, Hydroxychloroquine phosphate, Chloroquinum, Chloroson, Chlorquin, Clo-kit, Clorochina, Cloroquina, Coronavirus, Delagil, Emquin, Heliopar, Jasochlor, Lariago, Malaraquin, Malarex, Malarivon, Maquine, Masaquin, Melubrin, Mirquin, Nivaquine, Nivaquine-p, Quinogal, Quinolex, Reconil, Resochin, Resochina, Riboquin, Serviquin, Weimerquin.
Hydroxychloroquine in us
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